### Principal component analysis

A principal component analysis (or PCA) is a way of simplifying a complex multivariate dataset. It helps to expose the underlying sources of variation in the data.

You can perform a principal component analysis with the `princomp`

function as shown below.

`> princomp(``dataset`

)

The dataset should contain numeric variables only. If there are any non-numeric variables in your dataset, you must exclude them with bracket notation or with the `subset`

function.

The `princomp`

output displays the standard deviations of the components. However there are more elements of the output that are not automatically displayed, including the loadings and scores. You can save the all of this output to an object, as shown below.

>`modelname`

<-princomp(`dataset`

)

Once you have saved the output to an object, you can use further functions to view the various elements of the output. For example, you can use the `summary`

function to view the proportion of the total variance explained by each component:

`> summary(``modelname`

)

To view the loadings for each component, use the command:

`> ``modelname`

$loadings

Similarly you can view the scores for each of the observations as shown:

`> ``modelname`

$scores

To create a scree plot, please see the article Creating a scree plot with R.

## Example: Principal component analysis using the `iris`

data

Consider the `iris`

dataset (included with R) which gives the petal width, petal length, sepal width, sepal length and species for 150 irises. To view more information about the dataset, enter `help(iris)`

.

You can view the dataset by entering the dataset name:

> iris

Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species 1 5.1 3.5 1.4 0.2 setosa 2 4.9 3.0 1.4 0.2 setosa 3 4.7 3.2 1.3 0.2 setosa 4 4.6 3.1 1.5 0.2 setosa 5 5.0 3.6 1.4 0.2 setosa ... 150 5.9 3.0 5.1 1.8 virginica

The dataset contains a factor variable (`Species`

) which must be excluded when performing the PCA. So to perform the analysis and save the results to an object, use the command:

> irispca<-princomp(iris[-5])

To view the proportion of the total variance explained by each component, use the command:

> summary(irispca)

Importance of components: Comp.1 Comp.2 Comp.3 Comp.4 Standard deviation 2.0494032 0.49097143 0.27872586 0.153870700 Proportion of Variance 0.9246187 0.05306648 0.01710261 0.005212184 Cumulative Proportion 0.9246187 0.97768521 0.99478782 1.000000000

From the output we can see that 92.4% of the variation in the dataset is explained by the first component alone, and 97.8% is explained by the first two components.

To view the loadings for the components, use the command:

> irispca$loadings

Loadings: Comp.1 Comp.2 Comp.3 Comp.4 Sepal.Length 0.361 -0.657 0.582 0.315 Sepal.Width -0.730 -0.598 -0.320 Petal.Length 0.857 0.173 -0.480 Petal.Width 0.358 -0.546 0.754 Comp.1 Comp.2 Comp.3 Comp.4 SS loadings 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Proportion Var 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 Cumulative Var 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00

To view the scores for each observation, use the command:

> irispca$scores

Comp.1 Comp.2 Comp.3 Comp.4 [1,] -2.684125626 -0.319397247 0.027914828 0.0022624371 [2,] -2.714141687 0.177001225 0.210464272 0.0990265503 [3,] -2.888990569 0.144949426 -0.017900256 0.0199683897 [4,] -2.745342856 0.318298979 -0.031559374 -0.0755758166 [5,] -2.728716537 -0.326754513 -0.090079241 -0.0612585926 [6,] -2.280859633 -0.741330449 -0.168677658 -0.0242008576 [7,] -2.820537751 0.089461385 -0.257892158 -0.0481431065 [8,] -2.626144973 -0.163384960 0.021879318 -0.0452978706 [9,] -2.886382732 0.578311754 -0.020759570 -0.0267447358 [10,] -2.672755798 0.113774246 0.197632725 -0.0562954013 ... [150,] 1.390188862 0.282660938 -0.362909648 -0.1550386282

This example is continued in the article Creating a scree plot with R.